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Hydrocarbons and their applications

In organic chemistry Organic compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon are known hydrocarbon .hydrvkrbnha to the two main groups of aromatic and aliphatic chain aliphatic .hydrvkrbnhay divide divided into several ... Family: alkanes, Akin and Syklvalkanha 

 

 

 

The physical properties of alkanes
The combination of non-ionic structure, molecules, whether solid, liquid or gas or methane molecule. The reason is very symmetrical, hydrogen-carbon bonds Qtbythay individual, cancel each other out, resulting in the non-polar molecules .nyrvhay attraction between non-polar molecules, the van der Waals forces are limited; the forces of gravity, these small molecules, should Mqayh powerful forces between ions such as sodium and chloride are weak. Therefore, you can easily by thermal energy, the gravitational forces overcome, so - the 183 which melt and boil at lower temperatures occur, will not be surprised: the melting temperature in ° - 161.5 ° C and the boiling temperature in C). This values ​​with the values ​​of the sodium chloride: the melting point of 801 ° C and 1413 ° C compared boiling temperature (As a result, methane is a gas at normal temperatures.
Industrial source alkanes
Industrial source alkanes, oil and natural gas is organic .trkybhay complex living systems of plants and animals that once constituted, in effect Fzarhay geological, over millions of years, to a mixture of alkanes of carbon in size, become 40 30, includes a carbon .syklvalkanha are also known in the oil industry, especially in oil Hide California are plentiful, with alkanes have arisen. Other fossil fuels, namely coal
 

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Stone, another potential source Lkanhast .rvshhayy to convert coal through hydrogenation, gasoline and fuel into synthesis gas furnaces and also to compensate for the lack of natural gas has been developed.
Methane is the simplest member of the family of alkanes with molecular formula and is also one of the simplest organic compounds CH4 is a greenhouse gas and is used as a fuel, natural gas is the main Article .mtan is the simplest alkane decomposition of plant material in the lagoon areas This gas is formed due to the ability to absorb large amounts of heat to the greenhouse effect than carbon dioxide .amA because the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere than carbon dioxide the main cause effect Greenhouse know.
One of the efforts that global warming is about control, trying to convert methane
  
Of waste water or swamps for carbon dioxide, methane .gaz cause inflammation and swelling or bursting
Dead bodies. In standard conditions of temperature and pressure of the gas is odorless and colorless and dominant and lighter than air, and the first compound is saturated hydrocarbon chain of gas. The nature of decomposition and decaying organic material Special plants in swamps obtained corruption can "swamp gas", and for this reason it is called. Methane, which is colorless. (Methane is only slightly soluble in water, but in 0.4, when liquid is lighter than water) the relative density of the ether and alcohol is dissolved, the organic liquids such as gasoline.
Ethan structure
   
After the methane C2H6 in terms of size, the chemical compound with the formula C2H6 Share shot alkane hydrocarbon group with gas. This gas is colorless gas and carbon STP is there in natural conditions and by refining It ethylene) Athens (acquired in 1834 by Michael Faraday comes through. The first time was in the electrolysis of potassium acetate.
  

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Alkenes
  
. (Mvsvmnd unsaturated) alkenes, which are a great group of hydrocarbons include unsaturated hydrocarbons compounds of hydrogen, carbon .lknha less than alkenes also may be one or more double bonds or conjugated are separate and apart.
Plastic
C foamed smallest member of the family of alkenes and 2H4 formula which two hydrogen atoms less of the carbon alkane) ethane (a.
  
  

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C labels in the formula is the second member of the family of alkenes, 3H6 hydrogen atom linked to three carbon atoms has been 6.
  
  
   

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Butene
C butene next member of this family is the formula for it, some kind of arrangement 4H8 consider that the four carbon atoms with eight hydrogen atoms placed in such a way that the octet rule is respected.
  
  
  

The physical properties of alkenes
In general, the physical properties of alkenes similar Lkanhast .lknha in nonpolar solvents such as ether, chloroform and dichloromethane are soluble but insoluble in water and are lighter than water boiling alkenes with the number of carbon increases .nqth ° 30 to 20 .bjz the small alkenes, alkenes boiling point for one carbon atom between C will increase. As alkanes, alkenes branch of reducing the boiling point. Alkenes than alkanes are slightly polar character of the polarization of electron and electron poor groups is created. When the alkenes, induction groups placed more power, a little dipole moment increases.
Alkenes
If organic compounds containing carbon-carbon triple bond, alkyne is called C .astyln 2H2 member of the family is the smallest formula and therefore acetylene or acetylene compounds substituted alkenes of say.
  
  
  

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The physical properties of alkenes
The physical properties of alkenes, alkenes are similar .lkynha carbon compounds polarity solvents, benzene and ethers, which are less well resolved, polarization less like carbon tetrachloride, but insoluble in water. As other hydrocarbons are lighter than water .brrsy and comparing the melting and boiling points of these materials suggest that the number of carbon boiling point increases and decreases branch.
The use of hydrocarbons in life
After water, the most abundant liquid oil in the upper part of the Earth's crust .nft a rich source of chemicals used to make ABC% interest in oil consumption causes 13% per barrel to burn and 87 .hdvd in weather and air pollution. Coal, crude oil and natural gas, fossil fuels are nonrenewable resources of fossil Fuel Co2 say large amounts because they are very slow and finally one day all will be formed.
   
Petroleum refining
Crude oil is brought out of the well. After removing the salts and acids, the remaining hydrocarbons are refined by fractional distillation of crude oil refining .ml do. In the beginning of crude oil in Furnaces to send .mvlkvl 30 meters heated then pumped to the bottom of the distillation tower is more than 400 C and later smaller and lighter than the boiling above the distillation column and the molecules are more and sooner Ysngyn welding more towers go down
  
Carbon atoms .brsh 4 to 1 cut gas oil, including combinations with low boiling point .mvlkvl of carbon emissions from liquid petroleum .brsh 20 to 5, including petrol, oil and heavier oils contain molecules. 20 carbon atoms are solid and oil are not even in high temperature steam molecules with more than
 

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Burning hydrocarbons
Light and heat energy + water + oxygen + hydrogen Gazkrbn dioxide =
kJ above equation, the complete combustion of a hydrocarbon shows free .anrzhy can be expressed in terms of / mol.
  
If the amount of oxygen is insufficient, incomplete combustion will be.
  
(Also formed and if the Co) in incomplete combustion, carbon addition of Yaksyd water, carbon monoxide, oxygen, still less, the amount of soot produced as avian products.
Halogenated hydrocarbons
 
Klrflvyvr hydrocarbons containing bromine and iodine), halogens (with petroleum hydrocarbons are different because most of them are easily decomposed by chemical oxidation or bacterial activity Nmygrdnd.mshabh stable metal contaminants in the marine environment Hstnd.brkhlaf permanent Vazafat metal they are made by human hands Vbsvdzhrt Meanwhile, the body did not have natural deposits Myshvnd.aksryt complex large animals they contain chlorine under Klrdarshnakhth are as hydrocarbons. halogenated hydrocarbons include a wide range of compounds. low molecular weight hydrocarbons, especially methane by marine algae and possibly by a small number of invertebrates made and often contain works bromine or iodine rarely. So perhaps increasing concentrations of these compounds from natural sources and is not the result of human activity.
Low molecular weight halogenated hydrocarbons escape even with large amounts made and almost all of these products into the environment of low molecular weight halogenated hydrocarbons Myabnd.grvh other than Freon or chlorine compounds. These highly stable, non-flammable Flvrkrbnha or cholera toxin produced inexpensively Mybashnd.anha primarily as coolants in
 

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Refrigerators and air cooling systems, but later came to the large-scale plastic foams were used as stimuli and aerosols.
Chlorinated hydrocarbon molecules with a molecular weight higher are the subject of particular interest because, unlike the compounds of the style to marine ecosystems and animal tissues, especially fat tissue accumulates Yabnd.ayn chlorinated hydrocarbons, including several groups of pesticides and poly Fnylhay are chlorinated.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons with low molecular weight volatile organic chlorinated pesticides. All have fled, especially in tropical regions that are still used in large quantities for their release into the atmosphere favorable weather conditions in the presence of water vapor in the atmosphere. And Srya way find. Chlorinated hydrocarbons, and inorganic particles absorbed on parts eventually resolved and the sea bed as a place for these compounds act. However, parts of suspension or suspended again if a suitable size or density filter by animals During the course of digestion and chlorinated hydrocarbons are entering the food chain.
Aromatic hydrocarbons
A family of aromatic organic compounds are said to be in a ring structure with double bond .rvmatykha, comprise a wide range of compounds, including benzene and its derivatives are Some of this material, do not even look like benzene .rvmatyk participate in substitution reaction, which is an index of these materials .grvh aromatic hydrocarbons, chemically and physically, are very different from paraffins and naphthenes. Aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzene rings are unsaturated, but very stable, often as a combination of garlic - yield of o-xylene, meta, by acting Some aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil are: benzene, toluene, xylene, p-xylene, naphthalene , Komen and so on. Words are aromatic fragrance means.
  
  

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Safety Information
Contact with skin and eyes heavy aromatics cut caused severe irritation, runny and itchy mouth and throat irritation to .blydn the stomach irritation, nausea and vomiting to reduced performance .bkharat heavy aromatics and dizziness CNS This product is flammable and explosive mixtures with air combine the vacuole.
The simplest known formula and the aromatic hydrocarbon benzene C 6H6 Friedrich August AD It identifies for the first time. Each carbon atom in the ring six, four electrons to share its 19 Kekulé von Stradonitz century. Hydrogen and the remaining one to two neighboring carbon atoms can be given that only one double bond or shared.
  

General characteristics
   
. Links aromatic 1. . Carbon ratio - high hydrogen is 2. The ratio of carbon - hydrogen flame smoke above the material - yellow 3 burn. . These materials are subject to substitution reaction 4 of electronegativity) electrophilic (nucleophilic aromatic successor) nucleophilic (are.
Toluene Toluene name is taken from the old name Tavalloli, toluene from aromatic hydrocarbons and coal tar is found in large quantities in .mayy colorless and flammable and as a solvent in various industries such as paints and resins
 

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Used .tvlvyn) Mtylbnzn or Fnylmtan (smooth and water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell like the smell of paint thinners .tvlvyn of aromatic compounds and is used as a raw material and chemical solvents. Other uses include solvents paints, thinners, paint, silicone sealants, reactive chemical, plastics, printing ink,. use TNT glue, nail polish and disinfectant and disinfectant can also be used to make foam and safety information based on call duration, mild or severe irritation Home .tasyr eye and skin respiration activity of the central nervous system is combustible and flammable .tvlvyn .bkharat this material when mixed with air is explosive. xylene -Artv use (PVC) ortho-xylene to as raw material for the production of phthalic anhydride and ortho-xylene in the production of polyvinyl chloride that .mvard consumption in the production of plasticizers, dyes, pesticides and so on.
  

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Xylene - Meta
 
Meta-xylene is an aromatic hydrocarbon that contains a benzene ring and methyl groups attached to it.
The consumption of raw material for synthetic dyes, pharmaceuticals, pesticides and solvents is the main way for the use of meta-xylene in the production Ayzvftalyk acid in the production of PET Copolymer is .bkar
   
Xylene -Para
 
Para-xylene is widely used in the production of terephthalic acid and polyester for its .plymr known as para-xylene .mvard use in the production of raw material for synthetic fibers, pharmaceuticals, pesticides and solvents used parylene .
  
  
  
  
  
  

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Naphthalene
Naphthalene is also called the name "naphthalene" or "black tar", "camphor tar", "Lbvkrbn" is of an aromatic hydrocarbon that in view of the small pellets come to market and solid-color white .nftalyn Sublimation is a strong and highly flammable vapor Dard.mvlkvl fused benzene rings made of naphthalene from coal. It is the color, and phthalic anhydride is used to make plastics and solver. Naphthalene for disinfection and insecticide) More solved Drmtanvl (.nftalyn many applications to prevent the carpet and woven fabrics are also used.
  
  

Komen
Komen an aromatic organic compound and a component of crude oil and refined fuel is colorless and flammable .mayy Crofts benzene - ° C on manufacturing, commercial Komen via alkylation Friedel 152 the boiling point of propylene is carried out
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Hydrocarbons and their applications

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Hydrocarbons and their applications

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Hydrocarbons and their applications


Hydrocarbons and their applications
Hydrocarbons and their applications

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