- Category: مقالات
- Published on Sunday, 22 March 1407 14:09
- Hits: 56109
Bhchahhayy deep hole depth of 4500 meters deep Shvdchah called the United States of America. In the depth of the wells. Meters deep well say 7500 meters, very deep wells and wells to a depth of up to 6,000 of the wells in order to research projects in the oil and rocks to be drilled groundwater exploration thermal energy
The deepest exploration well drilled 11600 meters drilling rig hull old continent "whole" to depth (Archean-Proterozoic) of Rkyn- Prvtrzvyyk influence in the Baltics and one of the deepest exploration wells is called 3 - is said to SSRIs .chah Jay is. Wells and tanks or tank of a well-lived life of the oil or gas to the surface, where the economic potential is started and as long as the extract from a well or reservoir is a cost-effective continues .hrgah cost of production of higher oil sales, well close the life of the well and reservoir life are considered to be temporarily or permanently terminated.
Of oil wells (Exploration Well) exploration well is the first exploration well which is well for geological information and the knowledge of the oil and gas situation in the area to be drilled exploratory wells .hfr after exploration process and identify areas with potential oil reserves If the gas is made up of two or more reservoir exploration in an oil field comes into action, leading to the first well in each tank, the tank is exploratory wells.
Delineation appraisal well Well) (
For the lateral boundaries of the tank, to determine the size of the store and how to expand the storage tank is drilled appraisal well drilled. Before the start of exploratory drilling geological information to assess the possibility of oil Vlrz·h studied journalism. (Observation Well) observation well drilled wells in order to view the status of the storage tank pressure is called observational wells, surface water and oil, the ratio of water and oil and is one of the issues using observation wells verifiable and measurable. (Succession Well) replaces the well where it is possible to exploit wells in succession there is no previous wells drilled. For example, drilling a substitute in the vicinity of the well where drilling is stopped due preservative done.
Well development (Development Well) after drilling of exploratory and descriptive and save acknowledged the economic potential reservoir, dug wells to be .astkhraj development of oil and gas reservoir development wells will be done mainly through
Today the term is of paramount importance and power companies, oil criterion 2 procedures are considered to be .hfary (_Hfary period 1 Rotational drilling) hit 2 of _Hfary (Cable tool drilling)
Today, drilling is not much practical impact and almost all wells drilled by rotation (Rotational drilling) were drilled.
Rotating drilling used a variety of drills. Rotating drills on the rock shattered and, in this way it will erode drilling and energy required for turning the drill pipe is provided with a rotational system. The most important factors that will increase the speed of drilling mud, the blood in the human body serves as the drilling operation so that when rotation of the nozzle bore) hole (on the drill out of the enjoyment of property Freight transport on the ground that the action (Cutting) speed drill cuttings and drill lock prevents Today, almost everywhere in the well drilling for oil or gas drilling system time used be.
Drilling Impact drilling machines, impact or shock system, simple devices that access to water research. Since this device more suited for drilling in rocks that are resistant, do not use .asvl grinding stones systems impact the operation of the drill bit by drilling or terpanes done .mth regularly fixed on the stone fall from height .dstgah quadrupole equipped with a bridge or a rig that drills Drilling with a pulley hanging on it will be retrograde. This drill has a reciprocating motion, and to perform maneuvers, scroll down and up, the sweep device has been isolated and a device called a pulley wheel that is also used for the installation of pipes, bind .khrkhay isolated early wooden or metal .payh on concrete slabs that are pre-assembled ready, be flexible or telescoping of .dkl, portable automatic drilling machines are equipped with poles. This permanently on the back A truck can be fixed with cables .dklha should be based firmly on concrete blocks.
The most profound impact of the 1953 and 1948 wells with the deepest wells in this approach by natural gas in New York State of New York. Feet have been drilled, the oil did not reach 11145 depth drilling problems (blow out) fluids from the formation into the wellbore mud into the well sent (Formation) formations, is a certain pressure that uses the pressure and fluids in If the formation pressure control goals less than the formation pressure, causing fluid into the well to penetrate the formation in the gas or steam. If the fluid is very dangerous, even if the fluid into liquid and alters the nature of the goals is harmful and can kill flowers. The phenomenon of formation fluids to enter into the mud .gvynd blow out
This process is the reverse process, ie to put pressure so high that drilling mud into the blowout influence the formation and the drilling mud waste tank door. If this happens, make filling the pores of oil and gas reservoirs with sections solid mud crust on the so-called mud (mud cake) is said to be reduced and the productivity of the reservoir. In the best case loss of drilling mud, causing financial damage. It should be noted that the drilling mud is the most complex fluid that the human hand is not cheap material.
Water waste drilling mud (Filler loss)
Sometimes flowers are not only full of water into the formation of this compound is that it causes deterioration of mud and reduces its efficiency.
Mud has the following features: _Astkak between the drill and lower rock layers 1 to drill proceed more smoothly and not get stuck in the rock drill. _Hrart Caused by the friction between the drill and rock layer 2 to pass the wellhead. 3-rubble remaining from drilling that the remaining blade drill bit stuck at the bottom of the well to prevent its movement, the wells out. 4 of _Gl crust layer is created on the walls (mud cake). In this case, some of the layers of rock) non-reservoir (which frail and unstable and may collapse or shock problem at the mouth of the well, with the chamber find lasting coverage. _Dr way to layer 5 reservoir, drill passes through many layers of these layers themselves are porous and contains a fluid pressure is the column of drilling mud into the well on the wall, Maybe this will prevent the entry of fluids into the well of the most important features in the drilling mud that is it.
First, cut out in rocks around the drill and bring them to the surface; the second, cooling and reducing friction with the ground drill; third, to protect and prevent the loss of classes wells; fourth, the balance between liquids and liquids through classes the well; fifth, transportation of gas or oil from underground layers to the surface and measuring devices such as device ID or device determines the type of gases and gas.
The task of drilling mud
Do not put the low speed and low pressure after finishing or flowers, well erupt. This makes the drilling rig is destroyed. In formations in which the gas or oil (flow rate) is the stage of fire will follow and will be stuck drill pipe in the well, the drilling will cause trouble. The flowers of different materials such as salt and heavy use. These compounds by testing and to obtain appropriate geographic area.
Stuck in the well drilling
It is possible that the well during drilling or related work done, some of the boring tool stuck in the well or be thrown into it. The most common incidents involved the fields of drilling wells to say it. It is also possible piece thrown into the well, in which case you should approach and stacking.in contact with water mud with it, they will increase the volume and wells 8
Ramsdvd the procedure to solve this problem is that as far as possible from the mud with base oil and the formation of the casing is covered by But if quickly Chamanbid Formation is Loose (Casing) wellbore loss, and may also be buried drill bit is recommended procedure to avoid this problem is so designed that in the formation of loose mud, mud (mud cake) and prevent a lot of crust is their loss.
Technology drilling method
Various types of drilling of the drilling include:
Vertical drilling (vertical drilling)
Drilled perpendicular to the surface of the earth, in this way, but the drilling of a deviation from the route. Grade 2 to 1 that the vertical approach this deviation should be much less than (drift)
Directional drilling (Slant well)
that is stuck to the wall well run and then cement it using the directional drilling in the area around the fire and back again to the previous drilling.
Horizontal directional drilling (Horizontal drilling) degrees to the axis of drilling 90 wells conducted in this way, at an angle. This type of drilling can be very effective reservoir rock because it increases the surface area of the reservoir wells, resulting in more uptake better tank, but this method requires high technology as well.
New drilling methods
Laser drilling technology research started in 1977 on the use of laser technology for drilling oil wells in the first America's Army will aim 100 to 10. These tests showed that the penetration rate using this method between the original all Tests have been done with laser to achieve maximum value with minimum cost by drilling two (Miracle project) may at least be required .zmayshy as project scientist named Miracle was done by Brin and Graves. In this testing of wavelength 3 μm 8 and the laser power / kW using it within four seconds of laser irradiation to a depth of three inches could sandstone excavated from 1200 to the 600 system. With the laser, we will be able to speed up drilling to significantly increase the use of laser technology for drilling oil wells, along with the outstanding outcomes. The most important of them can be used to make ceramic wall wells, reducing the possibility of stopping the drilling operations, reduce drilling days , having same diameter from the surface to the bottom of the well, reducing the chance of getting caught barrels, the use of light tubes instead of tubes cited 11 times. One of the most important heavy 100 to 10, to reduce environmental pollution and increase the rate of penetration of The disadvantages of laser drilling, laser energy transfer from the source to the lens at the bottom of the wells are wells drilled by laser .mkanyzm so that the laser beam collision, the rocks split and then melt and evaporate in the third stage. At this stage of the fluid jets, steam production, which is attached to the wall well to create a glazed ceramic wall of the well. Create glazed ceramic bring many benefits. (PCD) Plasma Channel Drilling technology developed drilling method to reduce the cost and ease of operation of the important researchers in the field of industry. With regard to the reservoir during drilling in difficult and also reduce the heavy fixed costs are the experts in this field always seek the most appropriate method for oil well drilling has identified on the basis of technical knowledge and prepare their operational process. One of the new methods of drilling, drilling method is the plasma channel. Scotland, using high-power pulsed plasma with electric power, a team of researchers at the University of Strathclyde .mhqqan for drilling in stone. They estimate that using this new exploration techniques only. Billion barrels of oil to 3/1 the volume of, existing wells in the North Sea with the use of these technologies through the repair operation in wells and exploration cost efficient development of reserves next year. In the 20 to 15 intact, can Continental Shelf production level in Great Britain for the purpose of this group of researchers to create a "plasma channel" in rock drilling, high-voltage pulse power. In this process by passing an electrical current pulsed, ultra-fast burst into the plasma channel stone in less than a millisecond occur, causing fractures and crushed rock is crushed by the force of the blast .sng attached to the wall and a wall of rock in the hole wall.and led to a split and 12
Its fragmentation. By using high-power pulsed technology, plasma mass several times a second form. The result of this process is repeated, controlled drilling with high performance.
Plasma channel method for portability and optimal use of energy consumption, a major breakthrough in drilling operations and in addition, because of the small hole created plasma channel and one or two inches in diameter, so downtime and loss of deputy (David Macbeth) on the sea bed is less intense compared to traditional drilling .dyvyd Mkbt says many companies have now come to the conclusion that small diameter wells because of low Strathclyde drilling costs and low environmental destruction, is a better option for the exploration and extraction of plasma channel .hfary can be used and superior technology for exploration and production of oil and gas in the future be l